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An Article, from the online study of “The Nature of Jesus” entitled:

To Water instead of Blood:
The Story of Serapis to Jesus

Authored by Clinton S. Clark

Copyright © 2004 Clinton S. Clark. All Rights Reserved.

The Gospel Writers

We are all related, every one of us. We come from the tribe of Australopithecines. Later on in history, this tribe developed into two major groups. One group flourished out of Dmanisi, near the Caucasus Mountains, not too far from Mt. Ararat, and migrated south to Ucagizla and Ugarit in 6,500 BCE and eventually became the Canaanites (the Semites) in and later on the Phoenicians. The other group flourished out of the areas of Cyrene, Libya and Alexandria, Egypt.

As the Greek Empire developed, there began to be an invisible line that developed between the two groups in the area of Caesarea, Tyre, and Samaria near Jerusalem in Judea. This line would become even more pronounced during the Roman Empire. This is their story.

Our ancestral group that flourished out of Dmanisi, we will call the Thecines for now. And, our ancestral group that flourished out of the areas of Cyrene, Libya and Alexandria, Egypt, we will call the Hermeticus now. Both the Thecines and the Hermeticus became experts in the Zodialogical Science of Astrology. The stars would help travelers on land and sea find their way during their journeys away from home. This science would also assist them in agriculture and other significant parts of their daily lives. In the evenings, at or away from home, these groups of Thecines and Hermeticus star viewers would get together in the evenings and exchange stories about what was happening in the Heavens. It was a time, during each day, when they could get together, relax, and entertain each other with Oral Traditions (parables). It was also a time to exchange ideas and to add to each other's knowledge.

The earliest group of parables centered on "El" and "Re (Ra)" along with the families of each god. The parables were amazing and reflected life on the ground, with one exception. In the parables of the gods, the parable gods would come back to life after a severe conflict. They had to. If gods died permanently, the parables would end and so would the night's entertainment.

This life-death-life cycle reflected life on the ground too; summer-winter-summer. One could always look forward to a beautiful summer after the death of winter.

The common ground of "El" and "Re (Ra)" was Seth. Seth, the god of chaos, could be added into any "El" or "Re (Ra)" parable to stir things up as needed, and to keep the parable interesting.

The Greeks brought a new group of god families into the mix with the god Apollo (Helios and as in Heliopolis). The parables became more advanced intellectually, and created a gap between the literate and the illiterate majority. "El" and "Re (Ra)," with their families, continued to develop equally along side of Apollo and his family up to about 720 BCE.

Jerusalem had always been a very magical place with its volcanic activity at Golan Heights (a volcanic plateau) and with the Dead Sea (on top the Jordan Rift). It was a place of great power and mystery. The salt content of the Dead Sea is so high (creating a mystical buoyancy effect) that one could almost walk on top of the water.

The Exodus

In 720 BCE Pharaoh Bocchoris, in the midst of a terrible plague of acute and chronic Trichinella and/or Schistosomiasis, had no choice but to cast out the victims who had contracted the disease. These Hermeticus, lead by Iuput II, made their way to Jerusalem in hope of being healed there.

"They traveled on for six days without a break, and on the seventh they expelled the previous inhabitants of Canaan [Judea and Samaria and], took over their lands and in them built a holy city and temple." SOURCE: The Jews (2 -13) The Histories by Cornelius Tacitus - Book Five

Pharaoh Bocchoris was later burned alive by Shabaka; whether he too became infected or not, we do not know.

A year earlier, (before the Hermeticus were cast out of Egypt by Bocchoris), the Assyrians had conquered Samaria along with the ten tribes in the northern Kingdom of Israel and exiled them, most likely up into northwestern Turkey, near Dmanisi and Mt. Ararat (ironically from where they originated over 5,000 years ago). This made settling Samaria, by the arriving Hermeticus, much easier to accomplish.

From the Article: Hezekiah to Josiah 720 BCE - 600 BCE

"King Hezekiah prevails against Assyrian influences. He strengthens the Temple service and builds a broad wall around the Upper City to protect the extension of the city called the Mishneh on the western side (2nd Kings 22:14), reinforcing the existing walls and extending the boundary of the city of David and Solomon. A tunnel is dug to bring water within the city walls, safe from the anticipated Assyrian siege. The king orders the building of warehouses to store extra food. The kingdom's chariot forces are strengthened. "Now it came to pass in the fourteenth year of king Hezekiah, that Sennacherib king of Assyria came up against all the fortified cities of Judah, and took them." (Isaiah 36:1) Only Jerusalem remains unconquered. The Assyrian soldiers are struck by some mysterious disease during their siege, possibly a plague, and they leave the walls of Jerusalem. The siege is miraculously over (2nd Chronicles 32)." SOURCE: Jerusalem Archives 2004. www.jerusalem-archives.org

The Hermeticus brought with them, their parables of "Re (Ra)" and his family; which was going to create a problem. The current residents of region of Samaria, what remained of the Thecines after their exile by the Assyrians (at least we hope they were exiled and not killed of by disease), had their own set of parables about "El" and his family.

A very novel solution, one that Ptolemy I would use later on in history at Alexandria for the Greek and Egyptian population there, was proposed by Iuput II and accepted by both the Hermeticus and the Thecines.

To keep peace between both groups, it was decided that one god would be worshipped and without any family members. In addition, this new one god would have "no name." In this way, neither group would feel like the other group was getting preferential treatment. It was a great solution; but as with most solutions, there are advantages and disadvantages.

On the advantage side, this new no-name god would attract people from both the Southern and the Northern Kingdoms together at Jerusalem. On the disadvantage side, this new group of mixed Hermeticus and Thecines were effectively taking themselves "out of the loop" from the rest of the mainstream society (in and around the Mediterranean Sea basin). Their parables, of this new no-name god, would not be able to evolve equally along with the parables of mainstream society gods. This new no name god became static, fixed, and stagnant.

The parables of "Re (Ra)" and his family continued to evolve along with Isis and Horus. Apollo and his family continued to evolve in Egypt, up though the building of Alexandria and the death of Alexander the Great.

Following Alexander's death, and the spread of the Roman Empire, mainstream society upgraded to a new set of gods using the Roman sun god Saturn and a new god for Alexandria, Egypt named Serapis.

Serapis was the very novel solution of Ptolemy I that he used to keep the peace in Alexandria between the Egyptian and the Greek cultures. Even though the no-name god and Serapis were both very excellent ideas for a mixed population, was only Serapis that was able to evolve along with Isis.

For the remainder of this article, we will refer to our mixed group of Hermeticus and Thecines by their real historical name, which are the Jews of Judea and the Samaritans of Samaria.

The Laws of Moses (Iuput II), worked for a short time, until the Kingdoms and the city-state of Jerusalem became more metropolitan and overcrowded. Jerusalem, which at one time had the luxury of being somewhat sparse and isolated from mainstream society, ended up being its own worst nightmare as a booming therapeutic business and god influence center (or shrine).

The behaviors brought by the Jews from Ugarit centered on blood worship (believing that blood was the source of life) and animal burning. And because they could not evolve with the rest of mainstream society, they eventually became an extreme public nuisance. The smell of animal burning alone was enough for complaints to become common in the area. Their behavior also included penis mutilation, as part of their Rites of Blood. These penis mutilators and animal burners scared and offended the rest of mainstream society. These behaviors belonged more to an ancient (desert) culture and less to a metropolitan culture. Culture clashes and conflicts were common in the area and in 586 BCE, the Babylonians interceded and destroyed the First Temple in Jerusalem and forced the exile of its therapeutic and shine center leaders (including most of the elite) to Babylon.

Cyrus II, in 539 BCE, conquered Babylon, which ended the exile period for the Jews and brought about a new period of prosperity and reconstruction in the region of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea basin under the Persians.

Parables in the Bible are just like all other parables in history with no exceptions. They are most likely based on real people and real events, but do not necessarily refer to a correct historical time or a correct historical place.

Unfortunately for us in the future, looking back in time, these parables present an interesting challenge to uncover the correct historical times, the correct historical places, and "the real" historical people.

There is a lot of information in the Bible, in addition to parables. For this article, we are only concentrating on the parables. From our earlier discussions, the only way to transmit information throughout the general population at this time in history was through the use of coinage and parables. If you wanted to "tell" someone something; it was by either coin or voice.

Taking the entire population of the Mediterranean Sea basin into consideration, relatively few people in the mass population could read or write; not to mention that many different languages and dialects hindered communications from place to place.

So what we had at this time in history were, many interesting parables being transmitted from place to place via voice and in person, and also being translated from one language or dialect into another (a lot of babble going on).

And also keep in mind as we have said earlier, that the timeline of real people in history, and the parables based on those people, are different.

That brings us to our next exploration. Was there a real Jewish person named Jesus the Messiah, the Christ that the parables are based on? Yes, there was.

We will look to the Latin Vulgate, the Douay-Rheims Bible, and the King James Authorized Version of the Bible for our source material.

Jesus was the son of Josedec (Joseph) during the Second Temple period 515 BCE. He was an important priest to the Levites: the tribe of Judah, the tribe of Simeon, and the tribe of Benjamin. And as Rabbi Saul of Tarsus had said of Christ, Jesus was "the Sophia."

Sophonias

"Sophonias, whose name, saith St. Jerome, signifies "The Watchman of the Lord," or "The Hidden of the Lord," prophesied in the beginning of the reign of Josias. He was a native of Sarabatha, and of the tribe of Simeon, according to the more general opinion. He prophesied the punishments of the Jews, for their idolatry and other crimes; also the punishments that were to come on divers nations; the coming of Christ, the conversion of the Gentiles, the blindness of the Jews, and their conversion towards the end of the world." SOURCE: The Prophecy of Sophonias

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Before we continue, we need to clarify "Deuterocanonical Books."

Definition of Deuterocanonical

"Deuterocanonical: relating to, or constituting the books of Scripture contained in the Septuagint but not in the Hebrew canon." SOURCE: Merriam-Webster Dictionary 2004.


"The Septuagint is the most ancient translation of the Old Testament and consequently is invaluable to critics for understanding and correcting the Hebrew text (Massorah), the latter, such as it has come down to us, being the text established by the Massoretes in the sixth century A.D.

Many textual corruptions, additions, omissions, or transpositions must have crept into the Hebrew text between the third and second centuries B.C. and the sixth and seventh centuries of our era; the manuscripts therefore which the Seventy [who translated the Old Testament in to Greek for Ptolemy of Egypt] had at their disposal, may in places have been better than the Massoretic manuscripts." SOURCE: The CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA Catholic Encyclopedia. 2004. www.newadvent.org

Deuterocanonical Books are especially important in getting at the truth that was originally in the Old Testament. Some Bibles, such as the Latin Vulgate (405 CE), the Douay-Rheims Bible (1609 & 1582 CE), the King James Authorized Version (1611 CE), and the Revised Standard Version (1901) of the Bible contain a number of these original books:

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With that said, let's continue our exploration.

"Zacharias [520 BC-518 BC] began to prophesy in the same year as Aggeus [Haggai], and upon the same occasion. His prophecy is full of mysterious figures and promises of blessings, partly relating to the synagogue, and partly to the church of Christ."

Zacharias Chapter 6:9-15

"And the word of the Lord came to me, saying: Take of them of the captivity [from Babylon], of Holdai, and of Tobias, and of Idaias; thou shalt come in that day, a shalt go into the house of Josias, the son of Sophonias, who came out of Babylon. And thou shalt take gold and silver: and shalt make crowns, and thou shalt set them on the head of Jesus the son of Josedec, the high priest. And thou shalt speak to him, saying: Thus saith the Lord of hosts, saying: BEHOLD A MAN, THE ORIENT IS HIS NAME: and under him shall he spring up, and shall build a temple to the Lord. Yea, he shall build a temple to the Lord: and he shall bear the glory, and shall sit, and rule upon his throne: and he shall be a priest upon his throne, and the counsel of peace shall be between them both. Between them both... That is, he shall unite in himself the two offices or dignities of king and priest. And the crowns shall be to Helem, and Tobias, and Idaias, and to Hem, the son of Sophonias, a memorial in the temple of the Lord. And they that are far off, shall come and shall build in the temple of the Lord: and you shall know that the Lord of hosts sent me to you. But this shall come to pass, if hearing you will hear the voice of the Lord your God." SOURCE: The Prophecy of Zacharias

Tobias was one of the party of Jews who came from Babylon to Jerusalem, in the time of Zorobabel, with silver and gold wherewith to make a crown for the head of Jesus, son of Josedec.

First Esdras Chapter 5 - Second Temple Period 515 BCE

"And these are the names of the men which went up, according to their families among their tribes, after their several heads. The priests, the sons of Phinees the son of Aaron: Jesus the son of Josedec, the son of Saraias, and Joacim the son of Zorobabel, the son of Salathiel, of the house of David, out of the kindred of Phares, of the tribe of Judah; Who spake wise sentences before Darius the king of Persia in the second year of his reign, in the month Nisan, which is the first month.

And these are they of Jewry that came up from the captivity, where they dwelt as strangers, whom Nabuchodonosor the king of Babylon had carried away unto Babylon. And they returned unto Jerusalem, and to the other parts of Jewry, every man to his own city, who came with Zorobabel, with Jesus, Nehemias, and Zacharias, and Reesaias, Enenius, Mardocheus, Beelsarus, Aspharasus, Reelius, Roimus, and Baana, their guides."

Jesus was the son of Josedec (Jozadak), was not a fan of the Law of Moses (Iuput II). Blood worship, animal burning, and penis mutilation, seemed vulgar and extreme to Jesus (beginning in 154 BCE, which will become clearer later on in this article).

In addition, the Laws also included a rule about the cutting of hair. The hair was to be left long and not shaved like the priests in Egypt. As a result, head and body lice became a problem because of this quirk. And with this quirk came Epidemic Typhus, which was (is) caused by the bacillus Rickettsia prowazekii, carried by human body louse.

And, as we have previously discussed, there were also problems with water contagions in the cisterns, in the water runoff, in addition to other water related issues at Jerusalem.

One the first controversies Jesus became involved in was the taking of non-Jewish wives by Jewish priests and others in Babylon.

We turn now to the Third Book of Esdras (Ezra), Chapter Nine, to read about the trial, in which Jesus was forced to endure some public humiliation by Esdras after their return from Babylon.

A phrase similar to, "to put away their wives, with their children," is used in this trial record and has the ominous tone of either "throwing their wives and children out" or "killing them."


The Third Book of Esdras (Ezra), Chapter Nine

"Then Esdras stood up from the court of the temple without, and went in to the chamber of Jonathas the son of Nasabus, and remained there, and ate no meat, nor dronk drink, for the multitude of the wickedness of the people [because there were so many who had broken the law]. And there was a proclamation in all Jewry and at Jerusalem, for all such as were gathered at Jerusalem out of the captivity [from Babylon], that whosoever came not to Jerusalem [from Babylon] within two or three days (according to the judgment of the old lords of counsel) his goods should be taken from him, and be excluded from the congregation of the captivity."

[Apparently many Jewish priests fell in love with Babylonian women, while they were in exile in Babylon, and some were refusing to come back to Jerusalem, because the Law of Moses (Iuput II) prohibited marriage to non-Jewish women. It appears that the Persians were going to be flexible either way and stay out it.]

"And in three days were all they of the tribe of Judah and BenJamin gathered together at Jerusalem, the twentieth day of the ninth month. And the whole multitude sat trembling in the court of the temple, for it was winter. So Esdras arose up, and said unto them: Ye have done un-righteously, in that ye have taken outlandish [non-Jewish] wives to marriage, and so to increase the sins of Israel. And know knowledge the same, and give praise unto the Lord God of our fathers, and perform his will, departing from the Heathen of the land, and from the outlandish [non-Jewish] wives.

Then cried the whole multitude with a loud voice, and said: Like as thou hast spoken, so will we do: But forasmuch as the people are many, and the winter here, we may not stand without the house: again, this work is not a thing, that can be finished in a day or two, for we be many that have sinned in these things:

Ordain therefore, the rulers of the multitude and all that dwell with us, and as many as have outlandish [non-Jewish] wives, the Priests also and judges of every place may stand in the time appointed, till they loose up the wrath of the Lord in his business.

Then Jonathas the son of Ezeli, and Ozias and Thecam received charge of this matter, and Bozoramus, and Leivs, and Sabbatheus helped them thereto.

After this, all they stood up that were come out of captivity [from Babylon]. And Esdras the Priest chose unto him the principal men from among the fathers according to their names, and in the new moon of the tenth month they sat together, to examine this matter [Esdras chose the fathers, of the sons who had broken the law, to examine the crime].

And so the matter was a determining (concerning the men that had outlandish [non-Jewish] wives) until the new moon of the first month.

And of the Priests that mixed themselves with outlandish [non-Jewish] wives, there were found:

Of the sons of Jesu [Jacob, who were priests]: the son Josedec [Joseph, Jesus] and his brethren [brothers], Mazeas, Eleazar, Joribus and Joadeus, which offered themselves to put away their wives [throw them out or kill them], and to offer a ram for their ignorance.

And of the sons of Semmeri [who were priests]: Masseas, and Esses, and Jeelech Azarias.

Of the sons of Fosera [who were priests]: Limosias, Hismaen, Nathanea, Jussio, Jeddus, and Talsas.

And of the Levites [who were priests]: Josabdus, Semeis, and Colnis, Caletas, Facteas, Colnas, and Elionas.

Of the singers of the Sanctuary: Eliarib and Zackarus. Of the porters: Sallumus and Tolbanes.

And of Israel, of the children of Foro: Osi, and Remias, and Geddias, and Melchias, Michelus, Eleazarus, Jemmebias, and Bannas.

And of the children of Jolaman: Chanias, Zachari, Jeizrelus, Joddius, Erimoth and Elias.

And the sons of Jathoim: Eliadas, Liasamus, and Zochias, Larimoth, Sabdis and Tebedias.

And of the sons of Zebes: Johannes, Amanias, Zabdias, and Emmeus.

And of the sons of Bannus: Olammus, Maluchus, Jeddus, Jasub, Asabus and Jerimoth.

And of the sons Adin: Naatus, and Moosias, and Caleus, and Rannas, Maasuas, Mathathias, Besel, Bannus and Manasses.

And of the sons of Nave: Nones, Afeas, Melchias, Sameas, Simon, BenJamin, Malthus and Marras.

And of the sons of Asom: Carianeus, Mathathias, Bannus, Eliphalach, Manasses, Semei.

Of the sons of Bannus: Jeremy, Moodias, Abramas, Johel, Baneas, Peliaas, Jona, Marimoth, Eliasib, Mathaneus, Eliasis, Ozias Dielus, Semedius, Zambris and Joseph.

Of the sons of Nobeus: Jdelus, Mathathias, Sabadus, Zecheda, Sedmi, Jesseus, and Baneas.

All these had taken outlandish [non-Jewish] women to marriage, and they put them away with their children [threw them out or killed them].

The Priests and Levites, and all they that were of Israel, dwelt at Jerusalem and throughout all the land, in the new moon of the seventh month, and the children of Israel were in their dwellings.

And the whole multitude came together upon the floor at the East side of the holy port of the temple. And they spoke unto Esdras the high Priest and reader, that he would bring the Law of Moses, which was given of the Lord God of Israel.

So Esdras the high Priest brought the law unto the whole multitude, to man and woman, and to all Priests, that they might hear the law, in the new moon of the seventh month.

And he read in the floor that is before the holy port of the temple, from the morning early unto the evening, before men and women. And they applied their mind all to the law.

And Esdras the Priest and reader of the law stood up upon a scaffold of wood, which was made therefore: and upon his right hand there stood by him Mathathias, Samus, Ananias, Azarias, Urias, Ozechias, and Balsam:

Upon his left hand stood Faldeus, Misael, Malachias, Abuschas, Sabus, Nabadias and Zachary.

Then took Esdras the book before the whole multitude, for he was the principal, and had most honor of them all. And when he had read out the law, they all stood straight upon their feet, So Esdras praised the Lord the most high God, the Almighty God of Hosts.

And all the people answered: Amen: and held up their hands, fell down flat upon the earth, and praised the Lord.

And Jesus [and his Twelve Disciples], Beneas, Sarebias, Jaddimus, Accubus, Sabbatheus, [Auteas, Maianeas], Calithes, Azarias, Joradus, Ananias, and Philias the Levites [all of them] lift their hands upward, and bowed their faces to the ground, and praised the Lord [in bitter public humiliation]:

Those were they [Jesus and his Twelve Disciples], which taught the law of the Lord, and read the law of the Lord in the congregation: and every man set those before that understood the law.

Then spoke Atharates unto Esdras the high Priest and reader, and to the Levites that taught the multitude [Jesus, Beneas, Sarebias, Jaddimus, Accubus, Sabbatheus, Auteas, Maianeas, Calithes, Azarias, Joradus, Ananias, and Philias] saying: This day is holy unto the Lord: and all they that had heard the law, wept [for the great loss of their wives and their children].

So Esdras said: Depart your way then, and eat the best, and drink the sweetest, and send gifts unto them that have nothing: for this day is holy unto the Lord, and be not sorry.

Then went they their way every each one, ate and drank, and were merry, and sent rewards unto them that had nothing, that they also might eat with gladness: for they were exceedingly rejoiced, through the words that were read unto them in the law: And so they were gathered together at Jerusalem to hold the feast, according to the covenant of the Lord God of Israel.

Joshua 21:4
"And the lot came out for the families of the Kohathites: and the children of Aaron the priest, which were of the Levites, had by lot out of the tribe of Judah, and out of the tribe of Simeon, and out of the tribe of Benjamin, thirteen cities [Jesus plus his Twelve Disciples]."

The Levites were originally the Egyptians that were cast out of Egypt by Pharaoh Bocchoris in 720 BCE and survivors of the plague of boils. Jesus was Egyptian by his ancestry to Moses (Iuput II) and Aaron.

Jesus and his Twelve Disciples (alphabetical)

1 - Accubus (Jacubus, Akkub, Iakoubos, Iarsouboos) comments: A Levite who helped in the exposition of the law.

2 - Ananias (Hananyah, Ananyas, Hanan) comments: Jehovah has been gracious. Later on, an Ananias lives in Damascus at a time when one of the most significant events of Bible History occurred: the conversion of the Pharisee Saul into the apostle Paul on the road to Damascus. It was Ananias who The Lord sent to lay hands upon and baptize Saul to remove his physical, and spiritual, blindness.

3 - Auteas

4 - Azarias (Asrias, Azariah) comments: Who interpreted the law to the people. Later on, an Azarias was a general and in the service of Judas Maccabee.

5 - Beneas (Anus, Anu, Banaeus, Bani) comments: Akkadian in origin: it means, "who fled in the sky like a bird."

6 - Calithes (Calitas, Colius, Kelita) comments: He is also named with those who explained the law when read to the people by Esdras and one of the Levites who signed the covenant made by Nehemiah.

7 - Jaddimus (Adinus, Iadinus, Jamin, Jadmus) comments: Benjamin, ben Jamin

8 - Joradus (Joazabdus, Jozabad, Joribus) comments: Brother of Jesus

9 - Maianeas comments: Elymniini

10 - Philias (Biatas, Philas, Pelaiah, Diatus) comments: Loving one another in general or Love thy neighbor as thyself. Philias is one of the Levites who "taught (the people) the law of the Lord, making them withal to understand it."

11 - Sabbatheus (Sabateas, Sabateus, Shabbethai, Alexandrinus Sabbataias, Abtaios) comments: One of the Levites who "taught the law of the Lord" to the multitude. Judas who betrayed Jesus: "Then Jonathas the son of Ezeli, and Ozias and Thecam received charge of this matter, and Bozoramus, and Leivs, and Sabbatheus helped them thereto."

12 - Sarebias (Sarabias, Sherebiah, Asebebias) comments: One of the Levites who taught and expounded the Law for Ezra.

The Second Coming of Christ

Matthew 24:36-51
"But of that day and hour no one knows, not even the angels of heaven, nor the Son, but the Father alone. "For the coming of the Son of Man will be just like the days of Noah. "For as in those days before the flood they were eating and drinking, marrying and giving in marriage, until the day that Noah entered the ark, and they did not understand until the flood came and took them all away; so will the coming of the Son of Man be. "Then there will be two men in the field; one will be taken and one will be left. "Two women will be grinding at the mill; one will be taken and one will be left. "Therefore be on the alert, for you do not know which day your Lord is coming. "But be sure of this, that if the head of the house had known at what time of the night the thief was coming, he would have been on the alert and would not have allowed his house to be broken into. "For this reason you also must be ready; for the Son of Man is coming at an hour when you do not think He will. "Who then is the faithful and sensible slave whom his master put in charge of his household to give them their food at the proper time? "Blessed is that slave whom his master finds so doing when he comes. "Truly I say to you that he will put him in charge of all his possessions. "But if that evil slave says in his heart, `My master is not coming for a long time,' and begins to beat his fellow slaves and eat and drink with drunkards; the master of that slave will come on a day when he does not expect him and at an hour which he does not know, and will cut him in pieces and assign him a place with the hypocrites; in that place there will be weeping and gnashing of teeth."

Notice that the Old Jewish Testament is used to describe the second time the Jewish Christ of the Old Testament will come to the Jews and judge them. This means that the Jewish Christ mentioned in the Old Testament is most certainly the first time Christ came to the Jews. There can be no doubt that the Jesus we are reading about here (above and below) is the exact same Jesus, as in the New Testament.

The Prophecy of Aggeus

Chapter 1:1-14

"In the second year of Darius the king, in the sixth month, in the first day of the month, the word of the Lord came by the hand of Aggeus the prophet, to Zorobabel the son of Salathiel, governor of Juda, and to Jesus the son of Josedec the high priest, saying: Thus saith the Lord of hosts, saying: This people saith: The time is not yet come for building the house of the Lord. And the word of the Lord came by the hand of Aggeus the prophet, saying: Is it time for you to dwell in ceiled houses, and this house lie desolate? And now thus saith the Lord of hosts: Set your hearts to consider your ways. You have sowed much, and brought in little: you have eaten, but have not had enough: you have drunk, but have not been filled with drink: you have clothed yourselves, but have not been warmed: and he that hath earned wages, put them into a bag with holes.

Thus saith the Lord of hosts: Set Your hearts upon your ways: Go up to the mountain, bring timber, and build the house: and it shall be acceptable to me, and I shall be glorified, saith the Lord.

You have looked for more, and behold it became less, and you brought it home, and I blowed it away: why, saith the Lord of hosts? because my house is desolate, and you make haste every man to his own house. Therefore the heavens over you were stayed from giving dew, and the earth was hindered from yielding her fruits: And I called for a drought upon the land, and upon the mountains, and upon the corn, and upon the wine, and upon the oil, and upon all that the ground bringeth forth, and upon men, and upon beasts, and upon all the labour of the hands.

Then Zorobabel the son of Salathiel, and Jesus the son of Josedec the high priest, and all the remnant of the people hearkened to the voice of the Lord their God, and to the words of Aggeus the prophet, as the Lord their God sent him to them: and the people feared before the Lord.

And Aggeus the messenger of the Lord, as one of the messengers of the Lord, spoke, saying to the people: I am with you, saith the Lord. And the Lord stirred up the spirit of Zorobabel the son of Salathiel governor of Juda, and the spirit of Jesus the son of Josedec the high priest, and the spirit of all the rest of the people: and they went in, and did the work in the house of the Lord of hosts their God."

[So, they began building the Second Temple with out delay.]

Chapter 2:1-24

"In the four and twentieth day of the month, in the sixth month, in the second year of Darius the king, they began.

And in the seventh month, the word of the Lord came by the hand of Aggeus the prophet, saying: Speak to Zorobabel the son of Salathiel the governor of Juda, and to Jesus the son of Josedec the high priest, and to the rest of the people, saying: Who is left among you, that saw this house in its first glory [the First Temple]?

and how do you see it now? is it not in comparison to that as nothing in your eyes? Yet now take courage, O Zorobabel, saith the Lord, and take courage, O Jesus the son of Josedec the high priest, and take courage, all ye people of the land, saith the Lord of hosts: and perform (for I am with you, saith the Lord of hosts) The word that I covenanted with you when you came out of the land of Egypt: and my spirit shall be in the midst of you: fear not.

For thus saith the Lord of hosts: Yet one little while, and I will move the heaven and the earth, and the sea, and the dry land. And I will move all nations: AND THE DESIRED OF ALL NATIONS SHALL COME: and I will fill this house with glory: saith the Lord of hosts.
The silver is mine, and the gold is mine, saith the Lord of hosts. Great shall be the glory of this last house more than of the first, saith the Lord of hosts: and
in this place I will give peace, saith the Lord of hosts."

[This is a very important concept to remember for later on in this article. The Lord said, "and in the place I will give peace." He did not say "conflict" or "strictness" or "or a harshness." What he did say was, "peace" and "smoothness" and "getting along with others."]

"In the four and twentieth day of the ninth month, in the second year of Darius the king, the word of the Lord came to Aggeus the prophet, saying: Thus saith the Lord of hosts: Ask the priests the law, saying: If a man carry sanctified flesh in the skirt of his garment, and touch with his skirt, bread, or pottage, or wine, or oil, or any meat: shall it be sanctified?

And the priests answered, and said: No. And Aggeus said: If one that is unclean by occasion of a soul touch any of all these things, shall it be defiled? And the priests answered, and said: It shall be defiled.

And Aggeus answered, and said: So is this people, and so is this nation before my face, saith the Lord, and so is all the work of their hands: and all that they have offered there, shall be defiled.

And now consider in your hearts, from this day and upward, before there was a stone laid upon a stone in the temple of the Lord. When you went to a heap of twenty bushels, and they became ten: and you went into the press, to press out fifty vessels, and they became twenty. I struck you with a blasting wind, and all the works of your hand with the mildew and with hail, yet there was none among you that returned to me, saith the Lord.

Set your hearts from this day, and henceforward, from the four and twentieth day of the ninth month: from the day that the foundations of the temple of the Lord were laid, and lay it up in your hearts. Is the seed as yet sprung up? or hath the vine, and the fig tree, and the pomegranate, and the olive tree as yet flourished? from this day I will bless you.

And the word of the Lord came a second time to Aggeus in the four and twentieth day of the month, saying: Speak to Zorobabel the governor of Juda, saying: I will move both heaven and earth. And I will overthrow the throne of kingdoms, and will destroy the strength of the kingdom of the Gentiles: and I will overthrow the chariot, and him that rideth therein: and the horses and their riders shall come down, every one by the sword of his brother.

In that day, saith the Lord of hosts, I will take thee, O Zorobabel the son of Salathiel, my servant, saith the Lord, and will make thee as a signet, for I have chosen thee, saith the Lord of hosts."

The Old Testament was finished being assembled in about 400 BCE, confirmed by Jewish historian Josephus. He said that the Old Testament was completed after the book "Malachi" was added.

Clement of Alexandria - Stromata (150 CE - 213 CE)

"From the captivity at Babylon, which took place in the time of Jeremiah the prophet, was fulfilled what was spoken by Daniel the prophet as follows: "Seventy weeks are determined upon thy people, and upon thy holy city, to finish the transgression, and to seal sins, and to wipe out and make reconciliation for iniquity, and to bring in everlasting righteousness, and to seal the vision and the prophet, and to anoint the Holy of Holies. Know therefore, and understand, that from the going forth of the word commanding an answer to be given, and Jerusalem to be built, to Christ the Prince, are seven weeks and sixty-two weeks; and the street shall be again built, and the wall; and the times shall be expended.

And after the sixty-two weeks the anointing shall be overthrown, and judgment shall not be in him; and he shall destroy the city and the sanctuary along with the coming Prince. And they shall be destroyed in a flood, and to the end of the war shall be cut off by: desolations. And he shall confirm the covenant with many for one week; and in the middle of the week the sacrifice and oblation shall be taken away; and in the holy place shall be the abomination of desolations, and until the consummation of time shall the consummation be assigned for desolation. And in the midst of the week shall he make the incense of sacrifice cease, and of the wing of destruction, even till the consummation, like the destruction of the oblation." That the temple accordingly was built in seven weeks, is evident; for it is written in Esdras. And thus Christ became King of the Jews, reigning in Jerusalem in the fulfillment of the seven weeks. And in the sixty and two weeks the whole of Judaea was quiet, and without wars.

And Christ our Lord, "the Holy of Holies," having come and fulfilled the vision and the prophecy, was anointed in His flesh by the Holy Spirit of His Father. In those "sixty and two weeks," as the prophet said, and "in the one week," was He Lord. The half of the week Nero held sway, and in the holy city Jerusalem placed the abomination; and in the half of the week he was taken away, and Otho, and Galba, and Vitellius. And Vespasian rose to the supreme power, and destroyed Jerusalem, and desolated the holy place. And that such are the facts of the case, is clear to him that is able to understand, as the prophet said.

On the completion, then, of the eleventh year, in the beginning of the following, in the reign of Joachim, occurred the carrying away captive to Babylon by Nabuchodonosor the king, in the seventh year of his reign over the Assyrians, in the second year of the reign of Vaphres over the Egyptians, in the archonship of Philip at Athens, in the first year of the forty-eighth Olympiad. The captivity lasted for seventy years, and ended in the second year of Darius Hystaspes, who had become king of the Persians, Assyrians, and Egyptians; in whose reign, as I said above, Haggai and Zechariah and the angel of the twelve prophesied. And the high priest was Joshua [Jesus] the son of Josedec. And in the second year of the reign of Darius, who, Herodotus says, destroyed the power of the Magi, Zorobabel the son of Salathiel was dispatched to raise and adorn the temple at Jerusalem.

The times of the Persians are accordingly summed up thus: Cyrus reigned thirty years; Cambyses, nineteen; Darius, forty-six; Xerxes, twenty-six; Artaxerxes, forty-one; Darius, eight; Artaxerxes, forty-two; Ochus or Arses, three. The sum total of the years of the Persian monarchy is two hundred and thirty-five years.

Alexander of Macedon, having dispatched this Darius, during this period, began to reign. Similarly, therefore, the times of the Macedonian kings are thus computed: Alexander, eighteen years; Ptolemy the son of Lagus, forty years; Ptolemy Philadelphus, twenty-seven years; then Euergetes, five-and-twenty years; then Philopator, seventeen years; then Epiphanes, four-and-twenty years; he was succeeded by Philometer, who reigned five-and-thirty years; after him Physcon, twenty-nine years; then Lathurus, thirty-six years; then he that was surnamed I Dionysus, twenty-nine years; and last Cleopatra reigned twenty-two years. And after her was the reign of the Cappadocians for eighteen days." SOURCE: Clement of Alexandria - Stromata

The Qur'an, Al-Tawba 9:30-31
"And the Jews said: Ezra is the son of Allah, and the Christians said: The Messiah is the son of Allah. That is their saying with their [own] mouths. They imitate the saying of those who disbelieved of old [disbelieved the Old Testament]. Allah's curse be upon them. How deluded are they! They took their rabbis and their monks as lords besides Allah, and the Messiah son of Mary, but they were not commanded but to worship One God. There is no God but Him. Be He Glorified from all that they associate with Him!"

As we have now shown, there was a Jesus Christ for Rabbi Paul of Tarsus (St. Paul) to teach the people about, before the Gospels of Mark, Matthew, John, and Luke. This is the reason for why he appeared to be so ignorant of these four Gospels during his lifetime.

The Four Gospels, Matthew, Mark, Luke and John are not telling a story about a new Jesus. The Four Gospels, Matthew, Mark, Luke and John are describing to you "The Nature of Jesus;" the same Jesus Christ mentioned in the Old Testament. Early Christ groups were continually fighting amongst themselves because of their debates and differences about "The Nature of Jesus." It was not until 381 CE, with the start of the Nicene Creed by the Council of Constantinople, that "The Nature of Jesus" started to take on a "Nature of Jesus" that would be transmitted by the early church to its parishioners. Describing the "The Nature of Jesus" and telling you a story about a person named Jesus are two very different types of information.

The way in which the Gospel Writers transmitted "The Nature of Jesus." was to embed the behaviors of Jesus into a similar story (like using a story template); and also embed the reactions of other people in the story to the behaviors of Jesus.

The Four Gospels were never meant to tell you a story about a new person named Jesus. Their purpose was to familiarize you with "The Nature of Jesus," from the Old Testament.

The New Testament is a reinterpretation of the Old Testament, defining "The Nature of Christ".

However then, that still does not answer the question of who The Gospel Writers were? Let's continue to explore further.

Ptolemy II Philadelphus [282 BCE - 246 BCE] and his son Ptolemy III Euergetes [246 BCE - 221 BCE] became interested in studying the primitive group of people, by modern standards, in Judea and at Jerusalem. They knew that real "Knowledge was Power." Ptolemy II Philadelphus started by requesting that a copy of the first five books of the Torah, be translated into Greek so that he could study the Jews and Jerusalem. How could one be a good ruler, if one did not know something about all the people in one's kingdom? In addition, he and his son knew that a portion of the original population of Jerusalem came from Egypt, survivors of the plague of boils. The translated works of the Torah became known as the Septuagint and it was added into the knowledgebase of the Ptolemy family Schools. In this way, any Ptolemy School student in Cyrene, Heliopolis, Apollonia, or Alexandria, who wanted to study the Jews, could do so. A number of gifted students were alumni of the Ptolemy family Schools in Cyrene, Heliopolis, Apollonia, and Alexandria. By about 174 BCE, the number of Jews, dissatisfied with the Laws of Moses, had grown to a significant number. This primitive and unholy blood worship, animal burning, penis mutilation, body louse and Typhus problem, was taking its toll on the Jews.

"1. ABOUT this time, upon the death of Onias the high priest, they gave the high priesthood to Jesus his brother [174 BCE -171 BCE]; for that son which Onias left [Onias IV] was yet but an infant; and, in its proper place, we will inform the reader of all the circumstances that befell this child. But this Jesus, who was the brother of Onias, was deprived of the high priesthood by the king, who was angry with him, and gave it to his younger brother, whose name also was Onias; for Simon had these three sons, to each of which the priesthood came, as we have already informed the reader. This Jesus changed his name to Jason, but Onias was called Menelaus. Now as the former high priest, Jesus, raised a sedition against Menelaus, who was ordained after him, the multitude were divided between them both. And the sons of Tobias took the part of Menelaus, but the greater part of the people assisted Jason; and by that means Menelaus and the sons of Tobias were distressed, and retired to Antiochus, and informed him that they were desirous to leave the laws of their country, and the Jewish way of living according to them, and to follow the king's laws, and the Grecian way of living. Wherefore they desired his permission to build them a Gymnasium at Jerusalem. (15) And when he had given them leave, they also hid the circumcision of their genitals, that even when they were naked they might appear to be Greeks. Accordingly, they left off all the customs that belonged to their own country, and imitated the practices of the other nations." SOURCE: CHAPTER 5. Antiquities of the Jews - Book XII

The Old Testament Tobias was one of the party of Jews who came from Babylon to Jerusalem, in the time of Zorobabel, with silver and gold wherewith to make a crown for the head of Jesus, son of Josedec.

It is from this time period [174 BCE - 37 BCE] that a group known as the Hasidim (Hebrew for "Godly people") rose up. From this group stem the Pharisees, Sadducees, and the Essenes. The Hasideans were deeply devoted followers of the Scriptures, and "deplored the inroads of the Hellenistic way of life into Judaism." The Hasideans were not thrilled over Jason [Jesus] being appointed to the sacred office of high priest by a pagan ruler [174 BCE]. SOURCE: New Testament Jewish Sects - Article by Jimmy Humphrey. April 11, 2003.

There needed to be a modernized version of Jesus the Christ in the Old Testament that would reflect the attitudes of the Jews in this new Greek and Roman world. It would have to be one that could be proven to be an agreeable interpretation of Jesus Christ in the Old Testament.

Onias IV, Son of Onias III, and the lawful heir of the legitimate high priests in Jerusalem, had reason to hope that the victory of the national Jewish party under Judas Maccabeus would place him in the office of his fathers. However, being disappointed in his expectations, by the election of Alcimus (161 BCE -159 BCE), he went to Egypt to seek help against the tyranny of the Seleucids, at the court of the Ptolemies. The Seleucids and the Ptolemies were political enemies.

In about 154 BCE, and with the permission of Ptolemy VI Philometor (180 BCE -145 BCE) Onias IV built a temple at Leontopolis, near Heliopolis. Though relatively small, it was modeled after the temple in Jerusalem.

His expectation was that after the desecration of the temple at Jerusalem, by the Syrians, the Egyptian temple would be regarded as the only legitimate temple. The traditional teachings of Judaism, as contained in the Mishnah however, could concede only a partial legitimate status to the temple of Onias at Leontopolis (as in Leo the Lion).

Note that in 153 CE in Rome, January, is changed from the 11th month of the year to the 1st month of the year. So that if you are trying to determine what month something occurred before this time, you would need to make this adjustment.

The Jewish Diaspora in the Hellenistic Period

"The word Diaspora has become as much a part of Jewish vocabulary as pogrom and the Shoah. Yet the Jewish Diaspora of the Hellenistic period should not be confused with either the Babylonian or the later Roman Diasporas. The Jewish Diaspora during the Hellenistic period, unlike the earlier Babylonian Diaspora, did not originate because of forced expulsion. Most of the Jews expelled from Judea by Nebuchadnezzar had returned to the land of Zion. The Hellenistic Diaspora was, for the most part, a voluntary movement of Jews into the Hellenistic kingdoms that created the Jewish presence outside Judea, especially in Ptolemaic Egypt (Collins, 3). This Diaspora was wedged between two worlds, on the one side were the Hellenistic values of the Greeks and on the other was the Mosaic law. The various ways the Jews of the Diaspora, especially the Jews in Alexandria, balanced these two extremes, through the emphasis of common values and loyalty to the monarch, dictated its existence in the Hellenistic World. "

"Jewish identity in the Hellenistic Diaspora was maintained largely through ethics and piety. While most gentiles thought of Judaism as a strange phenomenon, some Greeks admired many of the codes in the Mosaic law. Several aspects of the law, in particular, found a receptive audience among the gentiles. Throughout the Hellenistic period there had been a growing movement in some Greek philosophical circles towards monotheism. In addition, the Stoic and the Cynic movements both criticized idolatry. Therefore Jewish writers in the Diaspora could draw a connection between Judaism and the Greek world. The ancient Hellenistic historian Hecataeus of Abdera in his account of Judaism, written in the beginning of the Hellenistic Period, characterized the Jewish religion rather favorably. He noted the humanitarian aspects of the Mosaic law and the vital role of the priesthood (Collins, 156). The strictness of the Mosaic law on the issue of adultery and homosexuality agreed with many Greek philosophers and movements of the contemporary and yesteryear. By emphasizing common values, and downplaying practices exclusive to Judaism, such as circumcision, Hellenistic Jewish writers attempted to present their religion as a universal one (Collins, 160).

There was, however, also negative reaction to the presence of Jews in Greek kingdoms, and to the Jewish religion as a whole. Many Greeks, during the Hellenistic period, saw certain Jewish customs, such as the attention to diet and cleanliness and, as a result of these, the refusal to interact with and marry non-Jews, as going squarely against Greek ideals. Much of the evidence of the anti-Jewish feeling at the time can be found in the surviving literature. An Egyptian priest, Manetho, in a book about the history of Egypt, rewrote the story of the Exodus, as the expulsion of a leper colony (the Jews). It is also at this time that fables (later known as blood libel, a reference to Jews allegedly using the blood of gentiles for human sacrifices) began to appear, among them that Jews worshipped an ass, and that Jews offered human sacrifices in the Jerusalem Temple (Johnson, 135). The result of these claims was a sort of Hellenistic anti-Semitism. In every culture there is distrust of foreigners, especially ones who pride themselves on being different. The presence of anti-Jewish themes in literature, however, suggests an attempt by some Greeks to ferment anti-Jewish sentiment in the ruling class of Egypt. Because the Mosaic law discouraged contact with gentiles many Hellenistic Greeks thought that Jews were a selfish people. As a result many attempts of the Greeks to outlaw the Mosaic law were based on the idea that the Jews had to be made a more social people, like the Greeks.

Throughout the Hellenistic period the Jewish Diaspora was caught between two extremes. One being the strict Mosaic law and Jewish traditions, and the other, Hellenistic values. While the Jews of the Diaspora attempted to maintain close links with Jerusalem their primary concern was the relation with the current Ptolemaic monarch. Combined with the constant disputes within Judea itself and the nature of the Jewish religion, the task of the Jews of the Diaspora to blend in while maintaining their Jewish identity was extremely hard, and ultimately the choice became complete assimilation or exile into ghettos." SOURCE: Historiography of the Hellenistic Age. Syracuse University in Syracuse, New York. 2004

Such an assimilation, would most likely have led to a greater study of Judaism, and a reinterpretation that would have allowed the Jews to fit better into the Hellenistic Egyptian society.

Onias IV enjoyed the favor of the Egyptian court and successfully elevated Egyptian Judaism to a position of dignity and importance which could only have been gained by the exclusion or at least the reduction of blood worship, animal burning (at least less than the magnitude at Jerusalem), penis mutilation, the marriage to only Jewish women restriction, and the restriction of cutting ones head hair or body hair; and by adding the Egyptian priest style of bathing for purity. Onias IV and his following at Leontopolis were the most likely candidates for reinterpreting Jesus the Christ in the Old Testament (the Torah and other sacred Jewish writings) and writing modernized parables to support it this new interpretation. This is my best guess for the creation of what would be later known in history as the Gospel of Mark or at least the mysterious "Q" source. This favor of the Egyptian court was by no means a small matter. Their trust in him was enormous:

"The two neighboring kingdoms, which were mortal enemies of each other, disagreed materially in their treatment of the Jews: in Syria the latter were persecuted; in Egypt they were favored. In the ensuing disputes about the succession to the throne in Syria, Philometor always took a part, reckoning on the Jews who were at war with the Syrians. In 150 B.C., when he gave his daughter Cleopatra to Alexander Balas to wife, at Ptolemais, the Maccabean Jonathan was present and was treated with great honor by both kings (I Macc. x. 57-60). This marriage, however, did not prevent Philometor from warring with Alexander, or from giving his daughter to Alexander's rival Demetrius. On the march Jonathan was accused before Philometor; but the latter would not listen to the charges, and instead met Jonathan kindly in Joppa (ib. xi. 5-6). It is noteworthy that the First Book of Maccabees represents this expedition of the Egyptian king as treacherous and faithless, whereas Josephus ("Ant." xviii. 4, § 8) sets the Egyptians in the right. The former is from the Syrian standpoint; the latter from the Egyptian, as Mahaffy (l.c. p. 371) rightly observes. From this it follows that at that time there must have been a party in Jerusalem which saw in the Egyptian king the salvation of the Jews, and justly so; for Philometor was well disposed toward them.

With some exaggeration Josephus says of Philometor ("Contra Ap." ii., § 5) that he and his wife Cleopatra entrusted their entire kingdom to Jews and that the commanders-in-chief of their army were the Jews Onias and Dositheus. The Onias temple was built under him, and the work of Aristobulus on the explanation of the Mosaic laws was intended primarily for him. The Greek postscript to the Book of Esther shows that that book was brought to Egypt in the fourth year of his reign, for the passage therein concerning Ptolemy and his wife Cleopatra without doubt refers to him. The synagogal inscription of Athribis also probably refers to him." SOURCE: PTOLEMY VII by Richard Gottheil and Samuel Krauss. JewishEncyclopedia.com. 2002.

A large number of Judeans had accompanied Onias to Egypt and were known as the "inhabitants." In exchange for military service and keeping the peace, they were given tracts of land to live on with their families. The area they inhabited was between Memphis and Pelusium. It was called the Country of Onias. The first-born sons of these colonists would inherit their fathers' privileges and duties, however, Onias's sons, Chelkias and Ananias, were placed in service as generals in the Egyptian Army under Cleopatra III. Had the Jews in Judea only adopted the behaviors practiced at the temple of Leontopolis, Jerusalem may not have been destroyed in 68 CE. SOURCE: www.jewishencyclopedia.com 2004.

On Rabbi Saul's trip to Damascus, he meet Ananias who lived in Damascus and who told Paul about this new modernized version of Jesus Christ in the Old Testament that would reflect the attitudes of the Jews in this new Greek and Roman world; one that could be proven to be an agreeable interpretation of the Old Testament. Ananias was one of the original Twelve Disciples of Jesus, whose name means "Jehovah has been gracious." It was Ananias who The Lord sent to lay hands upon and baptize Saul to remove his physical, and spiritual, blindness.

From CHAPTER V. ALEXANDRIA AND ROME - THE JEWISH COMMUNITIES IN THE CAPITALS OF WESTERN CIVILISATION

"This sketch of Alexandria will help us to understand the surroundings of the large mass of Jews settled in the Egyptian capital. Altogether more than an eighth of the population of the country (one million in 7,800,000) was Jewish. Whether or not a Jewish colony had gone into Egypt at the time of Nebuchadnezzar, or even earlier, the great mass of its residents had been attracted by Alexander the Great, who had granted the Jews equally exceptional privileges with the Macedonians.

The later troubles of Palestine under the Syrian kings greatly swelled their number, the more so that the Ptolemies, with one exception, favoured them. Originally a special quarter had been assigned to the Jews in the city - the 'Delta' by the eastern harbour and the Canobus canal - probably alike to keep the community separate, and from its convenience for commercial purposes. The priveleges which the Ptolemies had accorded to the Jews were confirmed, and even enlarged, by Julius Cæsar.

The export trade in grain was now in their hands, and the harbour and river police committed to their charge. Two quarters in the city are named as specially Jewish - not, however, in the sense of their being confined to them. Their Synagogues, surrounded by shady trees, stood in all parts of the city. But the chief glory of the Jewish community in Egypt, of which even the Palestinians boasted, was the great central Synagogue, built in the shape of a basilica, with double colonnade, and so large that it needed a signal for those most distant to know the proper moment for the responses.

The different trade guilds sat there together, so that a stranger would at once know where to find Jewish employers or fellow-workmen. In the choir of this Jewish cathedral stood seventy chairs of state [like the 70 who translated works of the Torah which became known as the Septuagint], encrusted with precious stones, for the seventy elders who constituted the eldership of Alexandria, on the model of the great Sanhedrin in Jerusalem.

It is a strange, almost inexplicable fact, that the Egyptian Jews had actually built a schismatic Temple. During the terrible Syrian persecutions in Palestine Onias, the son of the murdered High-Priest Onias III., had sought safety in Egypt. Ptolemy Philometor not only received him kindly, but gave a disused heathen temple in the town of Leontopolis for a Jewish sanctuary.

Here a new Aaronic priesthood ministered, their support being derived from the revenues of the district around. The new Temple, however, resembled not that of Jerusalem either in outward appearance nor in all its internal fittings. At first the Egyptian Jews were very proud of their new sanctuary, and professed to see in it the fulfilment of the prediction, that five cities in the land of Egypt should speak the language of Canaan, of which one was to be called Ir-ha-Heres, which the LXX. (in their original form, or by some later emendation) altered into 'the city of righteousness.' This temple continued from about 160 b.c. to shortly after the destruction of Jerusalem. It could scarcely be called a rival to that on Mount Moriah, since the Egyptian Jews also owned that of Jerusalem as their central sanctuary, to which they made pilgrimages and brought their contributions, while the priests at Leontopolis, before marrying, always consulted the official archives in Jerusalem to ascertain the purity of descent of their intended wives.

The Palestinians designated it contemptuously as 'the house of Chonyi' (Onias), and declared the priesthood of Leontopolis incapable of serving in Jerusalem, although on a par with those who were disqualified only by some bodily defect. Offerings brought in Leontopolis were considered null, unless in the case of vows to which the name of this Temple had been expressly attached. This qualified condemnation seems, however, strangely mild, except on the supposition that the statements we have quoted only date from a time when both Temples had long passed away.

Nor were such feelings unreasonable. The Egyptian Jews had spread on all sides - southward to Abyssinia and Ethiopia, and westward to, and beyond, the province of Cyrene. In the city of that name they formed one of the four classes into which its inhabitants were divided.

A Jewish inscription at Berenice, apparently dating from the year 13 b.c., shows that the Cyrenian Jews formed a distinct community under nine 'rulers' of their own, who no doubt attended to the communal affairs - not always an easy matter, since the Cyrenian Jews were noted, if not for turbulence, yet for strong anti-Roman feeling, which more than once was cruelly quenched in blood.

Other inscriptions prove, that in other places of their dispersion also the Jews had their own Archontes or 'rulers,' while the special direction of public worship was always entrusted to the Archisynagogos, or 'chief ruler of the Synagogue,' both titles occurring side by side.

It is, to say the least, very doubtful, whether the High-Priest at Leontopolis was ever regarded as, in any real sense, the head of the Jewish community in Egypt. In Alexandria, the Jews were under the rule of a Jewish Ethnarch, whose authority was similar to that of 'the Archon' of independent cities. But his authority was transferred, by Augustus, to the whole 'eldership.'

Another, probably Roman, office, though for obvious reasons often filled by Jews, was that of the Alabarch, or rather Arabarch, who was set over the Arab population. Among others, Alexander, the brother of Philo, held this post. If we may judge of the position of the wealthy Jewish families in Alexandria by that of this Alabarch, their influence must have been very great. The firm of Alexander was probably as rich as the great Jewish banking and shipping house of Saramalla in Antioch.

Its chief was entrusted with the management of the affairs of Antonia, the much respected sister-in-law of the Emperor Tiberius. It was a small thing for such a man to lend King Agrippa, when his fortunes were very low, a sum of about 7,000. with which to resort to Italy, since he advanced it on the guarantee of Agrippa's wife, whom he highly esteemed, and at the same time made provision that the money should not be all spent before the Prince met the Emperor.

Besides, he had his own plans in the matter. Two of his sons married daughters of King Agrippa; while a third, at the price of apostasy, rose successively to the posts of Procurator of Palestine, and finally of Governor of Egypt. The Temple at Jerusalem bore evidence of the wealth and munificence of this Jewish millionaire. The gold and silver with which the nine massive gates were covered, which led into the Temple, were the gift of the great Alexandrian banker." SOURCE: CHAPTER V. ALEXANDRIA AND ROME - THE JEWISH COMMUNITIES IN THE CAPITALS OF WESTERN CIVILISATION. The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah
by Alfred Edersheim - Wm. B. Eerdmans, 1953. Grand Rapids, MI: Christian Classics Ethereal Library

Leontopolis (Tell el-Muqdam)

"About 10 kilometers (6.25 miles) southeast of the modern town of Mit Ghamir on the Damietta branch of the Nile are the several mounds that represent all that is left of ancient Taremu (Leontopolis, or "City of the Lions"). The ancient Egyptian name for the site means, "Land of the Fish". The remains cover more than 30 hectares (304,260 square meters).

Some Egyptologists believe that in ancient times, this was the home of the kings who ruled during Egypt's 23rd Dynasty, though most now locate the capital of this period at Thebes. It was also a regional capital during the Greek (Ptolemaic) Period and was probably the center of a powerful Delta kingdom during the Third Intermediate Period (about 1069 through 664 BC). It was also the ancient capital of the Eleventh Lower Egyptian Nome (province).

Leontopolis was mentioned by Strabo in his Geography reference work, and the name appears sporadically in other classical and coptic documents.

There was once a temple of the local lion-god, Mihos (hence, Leontopolis, "City of the Lions") located here, and while ruined, its location has been found on the eastern part of the site. However, it has not been completely investigated and the date of this temple is unknown. The goddess Bastet, who was considered the mother of Mihos, was probably also worshipped in the area.

Apparently, current excavations are being conducted at Tell el-Muqdam by UC Berkeley under the direction of Carol A. Redmount and Dr. Renee Friedman.. One of this group's objectives is to document these comparatively well preserved ruins in order to enhance our understanding of history including the development and the character of Egyptian urbanism, particularly in the Delta region. They also hope to gain valuable information on the Third Intermediate Period of Egypt's history, a time we know relatively little about, but this focus seems to be shifting into the Persian period.

Some of the findings and discoveries of this group include:

Some of the latest excavations have demonstrated that during the Saite period, and especially during the Persian period, the occupation of the site was very large and important. A number of different districts within the area have been identified, including an elite domestic district (Carnel Station), a non-elite domestic district (Qasr Station) and an industrial sector (Iuput Station). Within the domestic districts, the excavators have identified neighborhood fragments, including roads and houses. Apparently within this last district was located what was probably a Greek period bronze smelting installation." SOURCE: Minor Temple and Other Ruins of the Nile Delta, Part III by Monroe Edgar. www.touregypt.net. 2004.

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Other Possible Gospel Contributors:

Jonathan ben Mattathias the Maccabean (152 BCE -142 BCE)
(Apphus Maccabeus - The Wicked Priest)

Josephus first mentions the Essenes as a distinct Jewish group in the time of "Jonathan ben Mattathias" (160-142 BCE). In about 153 CE Jonathan ben Mattathias returned to Jerusalem from the Onias temple in Egypt. The name Jonathan ben Mattathias, literally means: John son of Matthew.

Publius Vergilius Maro (70 BCE - 19 BCE)
(Virgil)

Both early Roman Jewish Christians and pagans would select a passage at random from Virgil's works as method of divination. The Roman Emperor Hadrian is said to have consulted the "sortes Vergilianae" in an effort to inquire into his future. Many thought Virgil's fourth Eclogue 40 BCE, including Rabbi Jerome, to predict the birth of a Christ. Virgil's wisdom was included as a "Preface" to most Latin Vulgate Bibles from the ninth century. He was considered a prophet of Christianity in the Middle Ages and he was the magical protector of the city of Naples.

Philo of Alexandria (20 BCE - 50 CE)

Philo Judaeus, a Hellenized Jew, produced a synthesis of both Greek and Jewish traditions, resulting in concepts for future Hellenistic interpretations of the Messianic (messiah) Jewish Philosophy; especially by Clement of Alexandria, and Christian Apologists like Athenagoras, Theophilus, Justin Martyr, Tertullian, and by Origen of Alexandria. He may also have influenced his contemporary, Rabbi Saul of Tarsus (St. Paul).

Lucius Annaeus Seneca Iunior (4 BCE - 65 CE)
(Seneca Philosophus)

In his work you sometimes find striking parallels to Christian thinking (due to his studies of neo-Pythagorean and primarily Stoic philosophy). Roman politician, philosopher and writer. He became an important politician, but fell in disfavor and was exiled. Seneca is known for his moral-philosophical writing in the form of dialogues, consolation writings and letters.

Apollonius of Tyana (2 CE - 98 CE)
Hermetic author who wrote under the Arabicized pseudonym: Balinas

Apollos was acquainted with the new rhetoric of Platonism, Aristotelianism, Stoicism, Mosaism, and the new exegetical method, and knew how to express his opinions with force. He is the teacher who expounds a "Hermetic Christos" philosophy from the standpoint of the philosophy of Alexandria; "Hermetic Christos" who had grown out of Alexandrian traditions of personified Wisdom (Sophia) wedded with the Greek Logos (meaning word, speech, saying).

"Now a Jew named Apollos, an Alexandrian by birth, an eloquent man, came to Ephesus; and he was mighty in the Scriptures. This man had been instructed in the way of the Lord; and being fervent in spirit, he was speaking and teaching accurately the things concerning Jesus, being acquainted only with the [Egyptian] baptism of John; and he began to speak out boldly in the synagogue. But when Priscilla and Aquila heard him, they took him aside and explained to him the way of God more accurately. And when he
wanted to go across to Achaia, the brethren encouraged him and wrote to the disciples to welcome him; and when he had arrived, he greatly helped those who had believed through grace, for he powerfully refuted the Jews in public, demonstrating by the Scriptures that Jesus was the Christ."
SOURCE: Acts 18:24-28

The Ascetic Hermit Bannus (c. 54 CE)
(Beneas, Anus, Anu, Banaeus, Bani) a name from one of the Original Disciples of Jesus

"Joseph bar Matthew [Greek: Matthias], as Josephus was originally known, was born soon after Caligula became Roman emperor [37/38 CE]. He was one of two sons of a Jewish priest who claimed descent from the Hasmonean family of priests who had won Jewish independence from the Greco-Syrian empire two centuries earlier. A precocious youth with a thirst for learning, Josephus claims that by the time he was 14 he was already consulted on legal problems by Jerusalem's chief priests [Life 8]. At age 16 he began three years of intense religious training. After basic introduction to the principles of the three primary Judean factions [Pharisees, Sadducees & Essenes], Josephus attached himself to an ascetic hermit [Bannus] who was an advocate of a natural lifestyle in the wilderness of Judea." SOURCE: Into His Own. Mahlon H. Smith 2003. Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey. religion.rutgers.edu

Simon of Cyrene (c. 35 CE)
(Simon Magus - Magas family of Cyrene, Cyrenaica, Libya) The Samaritan Magas

Simon of Cyrene is known as the Hermetic founder of Gnosticism. Gnosis [meaning knowledge] is the esoteric knowledge of spiritual truth held by the ancient Gnostics to be essential to salvation. SOURCE: Merriam-Webster's Online Dictionary, 10th Edition

Mag(a) (Sanskrit) A magian or priest of the sun; in India priests of a certain class serving Surya (the sun) were called Magas. SOURCE: Encyclopedic Theosophical. Theosophical University Press.1999.

"Cyrene was the hometown of several famous Greek scholars and scientists. The mathematician Theodorus (c.465-399) developed the theory of irrational numbers (e.g., the root of three). His namesake Theodorus "the godless" (c.335-c.260) seems to have been one of the founders of atheism. His younger contemporary Callimachus is considered to be one of the most important poets of antiquity, and Callimachus' student Eratosthenes (276-193) will forever be remembered as the first one to measure the circumference of the earth (which he thought was 43,500 kilometers)." SOURCE: Cyrene and the Cyrenaica an article by Jona Lendering 2004.www.livius.org

The Basilideans

"This sect was founded by Basilides of Alexandria, who was a disciple of Menander, a pupil of Simon Magus; but Clemens says that he claimed to have received his esoteric doctrines from Glaucus, a disciple of the Apostle Peter. The system had three grades -- the material, intellectual, and spiritual; and they had two allegorical statues, the one male and the other female. A quinquennial silence, as in the Mysteries, was exacted from the Disciples; and the doctrine seems to have many points of resemblance to that of the Ophites. It ran on the lines of Jewish Cabalism with a succession of Aeons, Emanations, and Sephiroth, over which an {168} Archon, or Angelic-prince presided. They taught that Simon of Cyrene took the place of Jesus at the Crucifixion. Basilides was succeeded by his son Isidorus, and they say that Matthias communicated to them secret discourse, which being specially instructed, he heard from the Savior." SOURCE: Hippolytus, Refutation of all Heresies. The Arcane Schools by John Yarker 1909. Chapter VI The Mystic and Hermetic Schools in Christian Times.

"The Apostolic Fathers say nothing about Simon Magus, but with Justin Martyr we get startling developments. In his First Apology, written in AD. 138 or 139, he tells tis that one usthi. Simon, a Samaritan, from a village called Gitta or Gittae (see Ency. Bibl. iv. col. 4538), performed such miracles by magic acts in Rome during the reign of Claudius, that he was regarded as a god and honored with a statue in the river Tiber, between the two bridges, having an inscription in Latin as follows: SIM0NI Dao SANcT0. And almost all the Samaritans, he goes on to say, and a few among the other nations, acknowledge and adore him as the first God. And one Helen, who went about with him at that time, who before had had her stand in a brothel, they say was the first thought that was brought into being by him (A pot. i. 26. 1-3). Justin goes on to speak, as from personal knowledge, of the feats of magic performed by Menander, another Samaritan and a disciple of Simons, who persuaded his followers that they would never die. After Menander Justin proceeds to speak of Marcion, who was still teaching at the time. The followers of Simon Magus, of Menander and of Marcion, he says, were all called Christians, but so also Epicureans and Stoics were alike called philosophers. He had himself composed a treatise against all the heresies that there had been, which he was willing to present to the imperial family (A pot. m. 26. 4-8). As Justin was himself a Samaritan it is natural that his fellow-countrymen should bulk largely in his eyes. Accordingly we find him reverting to Simon and Menander in a later passage of the same Apology, where he repeats that in the royal city of Rome, in the time of Claudius Caesar, Simon so astonished the holy Senate and the Roman people that he was worshipped as a god and honored with a statue (A pot. i. 56), which Justin petitions to have taken down." SOURCE: The 1922 Edition Encyclopedia. Love to Know Corp. 2004

The Jew Lukuas
(Andreas)

The War Against Trajan

"After this incident, Cyrenaica [Cyrene] enjoyed a lasting peace under a Roman governor. The emperor Augustus presented its capital with a new temple for the god Zeus (with a replica of Phidias' famous statue of Zeus), and other emperors gave similar presents. The tranquility was only briefly interrupted in 115 [CE], when a Jew named Lukuas claimed to be the Messiah and launched a revolt. There were large-scale destructions, but ultimately, the Romans regained their province, and the emperor Hadrian ordered the Jews to pay for the reconstruction." SOURCE: Cyrene and the Cyrenaica an article by Jona Lendering 2004.www.livius.org

"Their revolt started in Cyrene, where one Lukuas -sometimes called Andreas- ordered the Jews to destroy the pagan temples of Apollo, Artemis, Hecate, Demeter, Isis and Pluto, and to assail the worshippers. The latter fled to Alexandria, where they captured and killed many Jews. (With a population of some 150,000 Jews, Alexandria was Judaism's largest city.) In 116, the Jews organized themselves and had their revenge. The temples of gods like Nemesis, Hecate and Apollo were destroyed; the same fate befell the tomb of Pompey, the Roman general who had captured Jerusalem almost two centuries before."

"Trajan sent out two expeditionary forces. One, consisting of VII Claudia, restored order on Cyprus; the other was to attack Lukuas' rebels and was commanded by Quintus Marcius Turbo. The Roman general sailed to Alexandria, defeated the Jews in several pitched battles and killed thousands of enemies, not only those in Egypt but also those of Cyrene. It is unclear what became of Lukuas, except for the fact that according to our Greek source Eusebius he had styled himself 'king' [of the Jews]. After this war, much of northern Africa had to be repopulated. The emperor Trajan and his successor Hadrian confiscated Jewish property to pay for the reconstruction of the destroyed temples." SOURCE: Wars between the Jews and Romans: the revolt against Trajan (115-117 CE) an article by Jona Lendering 2004.www.livius.org

The War Against Trajan

 

"The teachings of Rabbi Akiba ben Joseph helped shape the development of Jewish religious thought for centuries. He was one of the founders of rabbinic Judaism. Although he was born into a family of shepherds who could not read, Akiba became one of the most learned scholars in Jewish history. Later, he created a new way of understanding religious writings that gave meaning to every word of the text.

Information about the early life of Akiba can be found only in legends and stories. Akiba was born near Lydda around A.D. 50. Like his father, Akiba could not read or write. As a young man Akiba did not think highly of scholars, teachers, and students. After many years, Akiba married a wealthy landowner's daughter named Rachel. She agreed to marry him, however, only if he learned to read and write.

At the age of 40, Akiba entered a school called the Vineyard at Yavneh and became a gifted student. For more than 15 years, he studied the ideas and traditions of Judaism so that he could become a rabbi, or a teacher of Jewish religion and law. After showing his skill in a debate, Akiba earned the position of rabbi.

In A.D. 70 the Romans destroyed Jerusalem and the Jewish Temple. Without the Temple there was no central place of worship for Jews. As a result, Judaism became more dependent on rabbis for leadership. Akiba became a leader during this change.

In A.D. 95 Akiba and the other rabbis traveled to Rome to meet with the Roman emperor Domitian. The Romans had passed laws that punished followers of Judaism. The rabbis wanted the laws changed, but the Romans refused. After returning from Rome in A.D. 97, Akiba opened a school of his own near the school at Yavneh. He attracted many students and taught them under the shade of a palm tree. His teachings were based on the idea of "love your neighbor as yourself." [Leviticus 19:18]

While teaching, Akiba created a new way of understanding Jewish religious texts. According to his method, every word, letter, title, and punctuation mark had important religious meaning. Akiba also began to organize Jewish oral, or spoken, law by subject into a book called the Mishna. Jewish oral law deals with the traditions and practices of Judaism that are not covered in the Torah, or the first five books of the Hebrew Bible. In addition to his work with Jewish law, Akiba is remembered for his concern for others, especially women and the poor.

In A.D. 132 Rome made it illegal to study or practice the teachings of the Torah. This led to the Bar Kochba revolt. Akiba supported the revolt and continued teaching Jewish law. The Romans put Akiba in jail, but this did not stop him from teaching. In A.D. 135, after nearly three years in prison, Akiba was killed by the Romans at the town of Caesarea, now part of Israel." SOURCE: Harcourt School Publishers. Biographies. 2004. www.harcourtschool.com

The Four Gospels, Matthew, Mark, Luke and John are not telling a story about a new Jesus. The Four Gospels, Matthew, Mark, Luke and John are describing to you "The Nature of Jesus;" the same Jesus Christ mentioned in the Old Testament.

The way in which the Gospel Writers transmitted "The Nature of Jesus." was to embed the behaviors of Jesus into a similar story (like using a story template); and also embed the reactions of other people in the story to the behaviors of Jesus.

The Four Gospels were never meant to tell you a story about a new person named Jesus. Their purpose was to familiarize you with "The Nature of Jesus," from the Old Testament.

The New Testament is a reinterpretation of the Old Testament, defining "The Nature of Christ".

The books of the New Testament are addendums to the Old Testament, along with letters that are offered in support of those addendums. Jesus Christ was the son of Josedec (Joseph) during the Second Temple period 515 BCE, which explains the lack of historical evidence for him from 4 BCE to 33 CE. Jesus Christ the Prince lived almost 500 years earlier, first in Babylon, and then later on in Jerusalem. The New Testament addendums more clearly define "The Nature of Christ" centered on Leviticus 19:18. As it says in Galatians 5:14, for the whole Law is fulfilled in one word, in the statement, "You shall love your neighbor as yourself." Even addenda that did not make it into the Bible are trying to define "The Nature of Christ," however, for some reason they did not meet the criteria for adequately defining "The Nature of Christ."

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